1979 was the beginning of a political era that would not only own the 1980s it would Brand it. The Thatcher years would also embody monumental events in Britain as it connected the 1970s to the 1990s. Thatcher was to wear the nickname ‘The Iron Lady’ through some testing times; the Falklands, ‘Big Bang’, ‘Poll Tax’, miners Strike, Northern Ireland, and the EU ‘No No No’ response. Britains Iron Lady – The Thatcher Years
The Beginning, the journey started on the 13th October 1925
Margaret Thatcher nee Roberts was born on 13th October 1925
Born in Grantham, Lincolnshire, her father was a grocer. Mother was a competent seamstress and made a lot of Margaret’s clothes. She attended grammar school and went on to Somerville College Oxford to study Chemistry. In 1946 perhaps destiny called another pathway she joined the Student Conservative Assoc at Oxford and became their student President mingling with politicians.
At the start of the 1950s, she ran for a conservative candidate in the general elections for Dartford. Although unsuccessful, M Thatcher, already flagged up as the youngest female candidate in the country. She was working as a research chemist for BX Plastics.
Denis Thatcher, the original Philip May
Denis Thatcher became her husband in 1951 at Wesley’s Chapel on City Road. He was a businessman and executive in the oil industry. The couple met in Dartford. Dennis already achieved an MBE for services in the military. His family owned the Atlas preservatives company, he managed it. Being wealthy with properties and expanding overseas business it was Mr Thatcher that financed Mrs. Thatcher’s training, Later on, she went to study Law and became a barrister. She specialised in Taxation.
Mrs. Thatcher acknowledged her husband when she made reference how she would never have had been Prime Minister for 11 years “Without Denis by my side”
Margaret Thatcher becomes a parent
1953 MT became a mother to twins a boy and a girl, Mark Thatcher and Carol Thatcher
End of the Tories and the rise of Thatcher
In 1974 the conservatives lost, to the Labour opposition. Callaghan took over Prime Minister role 1976-1979. However, Thatcher took over leadership of the opposition, the conservative party in 1975 and was the first female to take this role. The General election of 1979 is where she then leads the party to Victory and became Britain’s first female Prime Minister.
Some would say the country went into economic problems under the Labour government because of the help required in credit in 1976 from the International Monetary Fund.
When did Thatcher first appear in Parliament?
As early as 1959, elected as an MP for Finchley.
Prime Minister MacMillan also conservative was in the office whilst Thatcher held a junior administrative post. Never straying from the Conservative party serving in shadow positions.
Oct 1969 Appointed shadow education spokesperson
1970 she held the post “Secretary of State for Education and Science
Prime Minister at the time Edward Heath. Much student dissatisfaction, rebellion protesting was common.
Labour WIN the 1974 General Election
In 1974 the conservatives lost, to the Labour opposition. Callaghan took over Prime Minister role 1976-1979. However, Thatcher took over leadership of the opposition, the conservative party in 1975 and was the first female to take this role.
The General election of 1979 is where she then leads the party to Victory and became Britain’s first female Prime Minister.
Thatcher Served in office: 4th May 1979 – 28th Nov 1990 For 3 terms in total.
One of Britain’s longest serving Prime Minister of the 20th Century. One of the biggest imprints on our social economic and political history. No matter if you were Tory or Labour, most people have some experience comment and opinion on the Thatcher years.
The beginning of the Thatcher Years
Thatcher quote on the doorsteps of Number 10
On the day of becoming Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher gave this quote:
“I would just like to remember some words of Saint Francis of Assisi which I think are just apt at the moment.
“Where there is discord, may we bring harmony, where there is error, may we bring truth,
where there is doubt may we bring faith, and where there is despair, may we bring hope.”
The 1970s to some extent politically where straining times. The country cycled through some economic hardships that required at one point help from the International Monetary Fund to bail out in 1976
Towards the end of the 1970s a lot of strikes, some hooliganism, and managers that could not control disruption, which made the British workforce look like a joke.
Where did the name ‘Iron Lady’ come from
A journalist from the Soviet press first coined the term Iron Lady, intended as an insult to the British Prime Minister. The relationship with the then USSR started early, upon winning the leadership of the Conservative party, Thatcher told a packed hall in 1976 about the USSR
“dictatorship of patient, far-sighted determined men bent on world dominance and acquiring the means to become the most powerful imperial nation the world has seen.”
The view on the USSR did not change when 2 years later Thatcher became Prime Minister
The Iron Lady nickname stuck and became synonymous for much of the Thatcher Years. This no wavering approach was good depending on which side of the argument you were on and possibly how old you were. The Iron Lady credentials worked well perhaps for the end of the Cold War, Falklands conflict, maybe questionable on the Poll Tax which was tremendously unpopular with the UK population. It boils down to what qualities you want in a leader of a country with 55 million + people population and your politics and what you feel is right or wrong. and that is yours alone.
5 top Thatcher Phrases
- No No No
- ‘Not for Turning’
- Iron Lady
- ‘They are a weak lot”
- “When you are at war, you cannot allow the difficulties to dominate your thinking: you have to set out with an iron will to overcome them,”
7 things you think of when thinking of the word Thatcher
- The Iron Lady
- Cold War
- Falklands Conflict
- Poll Tax
- Miners Strike
9 things Thatcher introduced to Britain
- Balancing the budget.
- Restructure of the British economy
- Section 28 Controversy
- Reforms in Education & NHS – emergency funding
- Big Bang – changed the City of London Forever
- Champion of the free market economy
- Savage spending cuts
- Manufacturing decline considering the new Global Economy and competing against the world – Britain was open for trade
- Unemployment during the 1980s hovered 12-10% of the employment workforce
Privatisation the big sell-off during the Thatcher Years
- Gas, oil, telecommunications, various industries, transportation, water industries.
- British Petroleum 1979
- British Aerospace, Cable & Wireless privatised in 1981
- 22 of the British Transport Docks Board. BTDB 1981 and formed into the Associated British Ports
- Jaguar 1984
- British Telecom (BT) privatised in 1984, it had set up in 1981. Prior to that date, all the telecoms services in the UK were Post Office owned. OFTEL and other similar regulators launched to manage the new companies that were emerging. It was losing money prior to this.
- British Shipbuilders 1985
- “Tell Sid” campaign selling shares, that was advertising the British Gas company being floated. British Gas privatised in 1986.
- Rolls Royce, British Airways, BAA, privatised 1987
- British Steel in 1988
- Water, 10 of the state-owned regional companies privatised at the end of 1989
- Electricity privatised from 1990.
The Falkland’s War
When the Argentine military junta invaded the Falkland Islands, most of the UK Population had heard of the tiny islands over 8000 miles away in the South Atlantic
April 5th 1982 British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher
“We must recover the Falkland islands for Britain and for the people who live there who are of British stock,”
Thatcher made a relatively quick decision to take control of the situation and to prepare a Royal Navy task force to sail and recover the Falkland Islands. The Iron Lady at the time of crisis presented a solid response to the situation.
2/4/1982 Argentina invaded the Falkland island. Argentina surrenders June 14th 1982
The Miners Strike 1984
One cornerstone of Thatcher’s government was bringing in Trade Union reforms, the battle lines where being drawn between the free market economic model and the workforce protection of the Trade Union movement. The free marketeers pointed to the 1970s as a decade of strikes and discontent, the 3 day week, a car industry was more on strike than not. By the 1980s the world was changing, Globalisation was already making inroads from the far east, Made in England and Made in Germany stickers on goods was moving on to the next chapter. British Manufacturing was in the crosshairs of the rest of the world. Another Battle of Britain was evolving
The Miners Strike
“The most bitter industrial dispute in British history”
In 1984-85 The Miners Strike was an industrial action on a scale yet seen, it lasted for more than a year and was an attempt to shut down the British Coal industry prevent the colliery closures. Arthur Scargill of the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) was leading the strike against the National Coal Board, Government agency.
The Miners Strike was the longest industrial strike action in history, it lasted from 1984 to 1985. Thatcher developed the government policy of defeating the industrial action.
3 key Thatcher policies to end the Miners Strike of 1984-85
- Build up ample coal stocks,
- Keep as many miners at work as possible
- Use the police to break up attacks by pickets on working miners.
Crucially, and probably the biggest factor of ending the miner’s strike was the technical issue that the NUM trade union had not held a national ballot in calling for the strike. This presented the NUM with a challenge that some other trade unions did not back the strike.
The critical element was the NUM’s failure to hold a national strike ballot
The High Court ruled the Miners Strike illegal in September 1984 as they had held no National Ballot, Strike ended 6 months later 3rd March 1985
Arthur Scargill and the National Union of Miners (NUM)
Arthur Scargill ran NUM National Union of Miners at war with the National Coal Board NCB run by the Government. Thatcher wanted less disruption of the trade unions and wanted them to have less power and control. Coal mines were at risk of being shut down. The year-long strike was one of the biggest in history and harshest industrial disputes to date.
Active picket lines, heavy police intervention. Thatcher’s government planned to keep as many miners working as possible and build up stocks and involve the police for those who work who were being subjected to backlash picketing. In the aftermath of the Miners Strike, they saw it as a victory for the Thatcher Government, but with the closure of virtually every Coal Mine the impact on communities and miners was never less devasting. The economic model of coal mining on the British mainland was all but over.
4 facts of Britains Mining Industry
- 1 million worked in mining in the 1920s, 2000 worked in mining in 2015
- In 1983 there were 174 working pits, producing around 128 million tonnes of coal a year
- Britains last deep mine closed in 2015, Kellingley Colliery
- Coal-fired Power fire stations in the UK will cease to exist by 2025
They made a film out of the Miners Strike
The 2014 film PRIDE takes place in the summer of 1984 and based on a true story of Gay activists in London who went to support the Welsh Miners during this time. It an upbeat empowering movie with another viewpoint of that era in time, based on some real characters who changed a part of history. Giving insight into two movements that may not have met had it not been for these extraordinary circumstances. Starring Bill Nighy, Imelda Staunton, Dominic West, Written by Stephen Beresford, Directed by Matthew Warchus
IRA/ Ireland during the Thatcher Years
1985 Thatcher signed the Anglo-Irish Agreement with Ireland’s Prime Minister Garret FitzGerald. This enabled the Irish Government to have an advisory role. This was the start to a long road of better cooperation between British and Irish Governments and compromises on both sides.
Thatcher, the Iron Lady to the public, standing firm and resolute and stating government policy was not to deal with anyone who uses bombs and bullets. The significant changes happened during the Tony Blair government, years later with the Good Friday Agreement with a different approach adopted.
Thatcher and the United States of America special relationship
The Iron Lady was not one to shy away from the responsibilities as they saw it to maintain world order or to not shy away from openly supporting Britains biggest Alley the United States of America.
Thatcher allowed US warplanes to fly from British bases to attack targets the US saw it had to do in retaliation strikes on Middle Eastern targets. Such operations have happened many times and perhaps not such a big thing as it was then, but one must consider the French allowed none US warplanes to fly across French territory. Both France and Britain and America were Allies and members of NATO, both adopting that role slightly differently
Thatcher also Allowed the US to station over 160 cruise missiles at Greenham Common RAF base 1983. This triggered a decade long demonstrations and protests outside Greenham Common by CND and its supporters.
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
Thatcher also supported NATO’s decision to deploy US nuclear cruise and Pershing II missiles in Western Europe as to counter the threat seen by western allies from the USSR.
Thatcher’s government was behind the purchasing from the United States of its Trident nuclear missile submarine system, a system that is still in operation today, 365 days a year 24 hrs a day there is a British Nuclear Trident Missile submarine somewhere in the world.
Like all politicians, some more than others, Thatcher was possibly more regarded in the United States than at home. Thatcher was praised for having a good relationship with Ronald Reagan President of America. They say Thatcher as a staunch alley against common enemies, which at the time was the fight against Communism.
Strains in the Anglo-US Relationship during the Thatcher Years
Circumstances strained the special relationship more than one occasion. In 1983 Reagan did not consult with Thatcher about the Grenada Invasion and in 1982 Reagan was not in favour of the British mobilising for war in the South Atlantic and lobbies both sides to seek a peaceful settlement.
HONG KONG and Thatcher
The first British Prime Minister to visit China was Margaret Thatcher. 2 years of negotiations with the Chinese over the fate of Hong Kong signed the Sino British Joint Declaration 1984 agreeing to hand over Hong Kong’s Sovereignty in 1997.
“She is an enemy of apartheid. We have much to thank her for.”
Nelson Mandela on Thatcher.
Standing up to terrorism, the EEC and the Commonwealth Margaret Thatcher fought to end sanctions imposed and Apartheid.
USSR and the Soviets meet Thatcher
In a 1976 speech, M. Thatcher made a speech that first earned her the “Iron Lady” alias, as the Soviet Army newspaper Red Star gave this name to her. Ironic considering they came from behind the Iron curtain.
“I like Mr Gorbachev. We can do business together,”
A film with a Margaret Thatcher capturing the audience with humour about her red dress see link below
In 1987 Visit to meet Mikhail and Raisa Gorbachev. The Soviets respected Thatcher because she spoke the blunt truth about how the Russians are. A senior researcher Ted R Bromund. PhD who has studied Thatcherism and Soviet Politics makes the 3 bullet points below to summarise her ideals.
- Believe that any state that limits its freedom destroys its own future
- Resists aggression without fear
- Seek peace through strength
Reagan and Thatcher had similar viewpoints, it was a time when the Russian Leader was trying to modernise Communism which was the start of change. Did Reagan end the cold war, Thatcher or Gorbachev? History played a card of presenting a moderniser as leader of the Soviet Union and linked to that it dealt the West with a film actor as president of American and Grammer School pupil as Prime Minister of Great Britain.
Foreign peace Negotiations during the Thatcher Years
Rhodesia situation in 1979 that then ended that crisis, and the result, a new land, Zimbabwe in 1980
Cold War and the Adversary that coined the Iron Lady
Soviet invaded Afghanistan, Thatcher condemned the invasion which gave the idea for some British athletes to boycott the 1980 Moscow Olympics.
Other criticisms about how weapons or other help were secretly being supplied to our enemies loomed
November 1988 “We’re not in a Cold War now,”, but in a “new relationship much wider than the Cold War ever was,”.
EDUCATION during the Thatcher Years
It was also Thatcher, who helped raise the School leaving age to 16 implemented in 1972 when Thatcher was serving in education.
1972 White Paper ‘Education: A Framework for Expansion’
Bullock report 1975
- Language and learning, this was a first of its kind going into great detail and stating the dissatisfaction with standards in English. Opposing views on teaching and identifying needs.
- Definitions of literacy, adult illiteracy, influences of TV, comparisons pre-war, and with other countries, social class, limitations of Watts Vernon and NS6 tests. Reading standards of 7-year-olds, 11yr old, 15-year-old.
- Samples surveys suggestions about monitoring.
- Learning & Language in the early years:
- How reading should be taught, giving the definition of reading.
- Primary skills, letter, and word perception, letter and phoneme sequence, comprehension, evaluation
James Report accepted in-service training for teachers
Free Nursery education ages 3-4 1973 white paper turning point in social history
Increase number of teachers by 10% above the required to maintain existing size
Warnock Report on Special Educational Needs
Statementing legislation from the concept of the report
Technical Vocational Curriculum developed
Someone introduced student loans
The research assessment exercise 1986 gave government support with research outcomes.
Saved the Open University
Transparency and accountability, tuition fees changed
Full tuition fees for international students in 1981
1986 Education Act –
Extended financial management to all schools.
1979 Education Act
Gave LEA’s Local Education Authorities ability to keep Grammar schools.
1980 Education Act
Assisted places scheme “enabling talented children from poorer backgrounds to go to private schools,”
1981 Education Act
Right to choose a school Parental preferences, which school a child went to
1988 Education Reform Act
CTCs city technology colleges financed by private and the government could select their intake and bypass local authority monitoring as they were directly accountable to the Education Secretary. Technological skills were at the centre of those.
1988 – led to grant-maintained schools sharing some CTCs methods, right to freedom from a local authority and right to use a selection. “independent state schools”
Introduced first entitlement to the statutory broad, balanced curriculum.
National Curriculum 3 core subjects Maths, English Science and 6 foundation subjects, a modern language, history, geography, technology, music, art and P. E
They introduced key stages stage 3 and 4 (ages 12-16)
Prime Minister Thatcher, removed free school milk for children over 7 yrs and they called her “milk snatcher”
National testing at 7, 14,11 and 16.
Key stages 1-4 ages 5 to 16.
Poll Tax – the beginning of the end of the Thatcher Years
1990 a taxation every person had to pay for where they lived was called the Community Charge, commonly known as the “Poll Tax”. This was prior to Council tax in 1993. It was part of the Alternatives to domestic rates that had been brewing since the mid-1970s, as a plan to help reduce income tax.
The government abolished Rates with the Rates Act in 1984. The Poll Tax was a fixed amount of tax per adult resident. Local councils set this rate. Students did not have to pay nor did the unemployed.
The abolishing of Rates
Rates depended on the value of the home. The new system made things more equal, but was it? Folks with less disposable income did not quite see the level playing field being so level as they were on an equal footing to folks living in more disposable income living in grander homes, perhaps. The chaos rolling out the policy was measurable, people refused to pay it for starters and risked going through the criminal justice system. They formed anti-poll tax movements, they also mobilised Poll tax riots and heavy political opposition from the labour party. The country didn’t like the Tax, but it was not enough for it to unseat the Tories from power at the next General Election as John Major one that one.
Poll Tax another What If
The only comment to make about the Poll Tax is that the idea perhaps had some basis, but was flawed in execution. Implementing a crippling household, local tax bill by double was short-sighted. If the Poll Tax what impact would that have had decades later? We are now living in times of multiple occupancies and shared living. Multiple occupancy housing really boomed across the country as Britain produced jobs at an astonishing rate. Those jobs where filled by a mobile global and EU workforce. The treasury could have pumped some of that money into local services as it was a direct tax link between a working-age person and the community they lived in. 4 working adults sharing a house and one bin manifest 4 tax receipts and maybe 4 bins, or a larger bin, who knows.
Losing votes and the Poll Tax was history
Labour leader Kinnock stated if they voted him in power he would abolish the Poll Tax which was a much disliked local tax system. Thatcher won by a narrow margin, why did Neil Kinnock not win that election when Labour was for some time during the campaign ahead in the polls – that is one for another blog post. It took time for Council tax to phase in the Poll Tax 1993-94 but they quickly removed it from the public conscious as they derided it as a past and distant memory.
Nothing is ever enough, the NHS reforms
1987 £100m emergency funding
Thatcher Brexiter or Remainer ‘No No No’
Probably slightly unfair to link a phrase introduced into the public lexicon 26 years after Thatcher left office, but there is probable evidence, you be the judge and comment below:
Thatcher defiantly declared in the House of Commons with the famous phrase, ‘No No No’ in response for greater central control given to Europe. The European Commission President Jacques Delors was seeking
- European Parliament to be the democratic body of the European Community
- The Commission to be the Executive
- Council of Ministers to be the Senate
The Iron Lady’s response ‘No No No’
It was with some division within the Conservative party and government, Sir Geoffrey Howe resigned from the government 2 days later. A few days after that, the Iron Lady, Margaret Thatcher was out of Number 10, ousted by her party. The European question had taken one more. Was it all Europe the demise of Thatcher? 1979-90 is a long time for anyone to have the top job, Europe, the Poll Tax you could take your pick.
What if, Thatcher was negotiating Article 50 with the EU?
I am not going to even attempt to plot that one, who knows. Today is a different era, different politics, the arguments are the same. It is almost as difficult to ask the same question of Sir Winston Churchill, or is it? One thing we could agree, it would be unlikely Thatcher would have been willing to U-turn in public. The Iron Lady was the brand, phrases such as ‘we are not for Turning’, ‘they are a weak lot’ cemented the Iron Lady brand. A U-turn Thatcher would be difficult to see.
Not for U-Turning
Thatcher would have perhaps created the compromise strategy at the start, averting a public U-Turn? That is one option. Perhaps as the resolute response portrayed during those testing times during the Thatcher Years, Thatcher would have pushed the ‘No Deal’ button to the 11hour and 59 minutes and 59 seconds? Before a deal was struck with an EU institution infamous for making deals, at the last minute. The Iron Lady had the resolve to face down barrels of the unknown against an adversary, stiff up lip and all that.
But Who knows, would any leader is that strategic – comment below. No PM works by themselves, would Thatcher have been taken out by a No-confidence vote if the strategy of withdrawing from the EU was a hard solid government policy? The No-confidence vote that saved PM May in 2018 may have axed a modern-day Thatcher. Would be great to read your comments on the What if.
Thatcher Years, Image and Brand
Today it is much more mainstream for high profile and famous people to have a stylist or image consultant.
It was a first, but also it was a first for Britain to have a female Prime Minister, it also must not be forgotten that Parliment opened the chamber to the cameras during the Thatcher years, times were changing. The public face of the government up until this point wore a suit. Thatcher’s presentation required studious planning for state occasions, travel, press situations, media moments or public visits. This was all new. Think about that, at the end of the 1970s, before Icons such as Princess Diana, and magazines like based whole sections to who was wearing what and from where. Before the internet and Social Media.
clothes brand Aquascutum Margaret King
From 1979 a key person advising PM Thatcher was the director of luxury clothes brand Aquascutum Margaret King.
Mrs. Thatcher’s personal assistant “Crawfie” was Cynthia Crawford who played a huge part in the image styling we knew Margaret Thatcher as. The Classic skirt suits, handbags, pearls conservative colours literally. Pussy bow blouses, pleated skirts, sensible shoes.
1987 Trip to Moscow
Meeting stylish glamorous first ladies in other countries especially the Soviet Union needed a campaign. 1987 Trip to Moscow photographically bears testimony to the impact of power dressing. Thatcher made some subtle influences in the choices so some of her own creativity crept in.
£30,000 at Auction
Several coats with Faux Fur trims. There was a touch of real mink though on the collar of a cashmere coat, camel coloured. At Auction selling for £30,000 in 2015. Strategic hats by the Royal milliner Philip Somerville. Power dressing was in full swing as the Prime Minister visited the Soviet Union.
The Margaret Thatcher archive released many sketches and details about the wardrobe items, stylists mentioned also kept logs giving a good record in terms of social fashion history. The Brands being worn were British.
Mrs Thatcher’s personal assistant “Crawfie” was Cynthia Crawford who played a huge part in the image styling we knew Margaret Thatcher as. The Classic skirt suits, handbags, pearls conservative colours literally.
Christie’s Auction House Margaret Thatcher items, 2-8th May 2019
Thatcher items up for auction at Christie’s Online Auction
- Handbag Navy Blue Lizard with gold-tone hardware from around 1990 by Asprey.
- An 18 Carat Gold Ring with large Amethyst stone from 1968
- Parliament logo desk blotter
- Hardstone “Pebble” Bracelet from the 1960s. A present from her Husband Denis that she wore all the time.
- 3 chiffon Evening Gowns from the mid-1980s.
- Sapphire Diamond and cultured pearl necklace
- 3 black evening garments from the late 1980s. Photographs show Margaret Thatcher wearing them to an evening dinner event with Ronald and Nancy Regan 1981.
- 3 Winter coats one black, one bottle green one cornflower blue wool and a pair of black high boots.
- Aquascutum and Jean Muir and Rayne
- Camilla Milton Dinner suits one with two skirts, one short one long early 2000 era. Blue glittery fabric.
- The 2nd Camilla Milton Suit a creamy beige colour. The outfit described as café au lait satin, with gilt tiny crackled pattern effect Dress and Jacket.
- Multi-stranded cultured pearl and diamond necklace bracelet and earrings set, Chaumet
Wide range of items at the Thatcher Auction
click on the links to see images.
Environment issues during the Thatcher Years
Passing the Environmental Protection Act 1990, and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
Titles Lady Baroness to Lady of the Order of the Garter.
After resignation in the early 1990s, Margaret Thatcher received (OM) Order of merit and was known as Lady Thatcher. 1992 life peerage and member of Lords and titled Baroness Thatcher of Kesteven Lincolnshire. 1995 she received the highest order a woman can receive (LG) Lady of the Order of the Garter. USA 1998 awarded the Ronald Reagan Freedom Award.
The Best Quotes of Margaret Thatcher
“Plan your work for today and every day, then work your plan.”
“I love argument, I love debate. I don’t expect anyone just to sit there and agree with m, that’s not their job.”
“Being powerful is like being a lady. If you have to tell people you are, you aren’t.”
“To wear your heart on your sleeve isn’t a very good plan, you should wear it inside where it functions best.”
“The problem with socialism is that you eventually run out of other people’s money.”
“In Politics, if you want anything said, ask a man. If you want anything done, ask a woman.”
“You may have to fight a battle more than once to win it.”
“When people are free to choose, they choose freedom.”
“Disciplining yourself to do what you know is right and important, although difficult, is the high road to pride, self-esteem, and personal satisfaction.”
Margaret Thatcher passed away 13th April 2013